Extracts (1731-1910) of the "Chronology of Bulsa History"

translated into English and supplied with some additions


NOTE. The following chronological list of some events concerning the Bulsa area is a Google translation with some succeeding corrections and additions. It is only a small part of the list on Bulsa history written in German and will probably be continued and completed.

The name "Ghana" is used here for the area comprising modern Ghana. Square brackets [...] in quotations are interpolations by F.Kroeger.


1731 Na Gariba (Dagomba) caught by Ashanti in a battle; release after agreement to pay an annual tribute (until 1874), including 200 slaves per year; Dagomba cause slaves to be caught among the non-centralized northern groups.

after 1750: Northern Ghana is involved in the slave trade (another source: since 1732)

after 1800: Islam established in the urban centers of northern Ghana

1808: abolition of the slave trade by the British government; in 1833 abolished in all British colonies (in the U.S. it existed until 1863)

about 1830 - 2nd June1900: Samori Ture (born in Sanankoro)

1849-76 Na Abdullai of Dagomba; under his rule Zerma (Zabarima) traders, mercenaries and Malams come from Niger to Dagbon in the 1860s; they speak a Songhai language.

around 1850 until 1900 or 1901: Anaankum chief in Sandema

1870 (1872 according to Tauxier) an army of Zabarima mercenaries is asked by Adama, King of Karaga (Dagomba), to join a slave raid in the Gurunsi (Grunchi)-country (Beyer, p. 105; Levtzion, p. 153, Tauxier, p. 183); according to Tamakloe it was in 1856 (Holden: much later!)

1870 (1872?) Alfa Hano, the first leader of the Zabarima dies after a campaign into Gurunsi country (Wilks, p. 103); he had previously devoted his life to religious studies in Salaga; his successor is Alfa Gazare, who set up his headquarters in Kassana (15 miles NE of Tumu ).

1872-97 The Zabarima are masters of the Bulsa country
1876? Alfa Gazari died at Kara (Tamakloe and Pilaszewicz)

1884? 1885? Babatu (born ca. 1850, died 1907), the successor to Alfa Gazari, begins his campaigns; the first pillaged city was perhaps Sakulo

1885 British annexation of Northern Ghana because of the advancing troups of the French and Samori

1887 Babatu destroys Wa

1889 G.E. Ferguson (Fanti-British) negotiates on behalf of Governor Maxwell with the chiefs of the eastern parts of the "Northern Territories" (NT)

1891 Babatu in Bulsaland (Pilaszewicz, p. 83 and Holden)

1891? 1896? The Sandemnaab leads an army against the Zabarima

1892-98 Ferguson concludes 20 treaties of friendship and protection in the NT (Lentz, p. 652)

1893 (? 1894) Grunchi warriors under Hamaria (Ameria, a Bulsa?) rebel in Babatu’s army because of women; from Leo Hamaria leads an army against Babatu (B. Der: 1894; - Pilaszewicz: 1895 Battle of Nwandanwuo, no winner)

1895 Gonjaland and Abron overrun by Samori’s army; Battle of Janitlipe (Gonja); Bole destroyed

ca.1896, Babatu attacks Southern Bulsa villages; inhabitants run to Sandema, where a battle between the market and the present Old Primary School takes place; Bulsa kill many Zambarima, when they were charging their guns (cf. Perrault p. 94-95).

1896? Kangmanate, headman of Kanjaga, is in conflict with his people; he calls the Zabarima for help; for some months raids in the Bulsa area

1896-97 military expedition under the command of Ltn Henderson to Bole (1st Feb.1897) and Buna, which had been occupied by the Mandingo "privateer" Samori; the British are beaten, and Ferguson executed (6th April,1897). Henderson gets into the captivity of Sankemory (Samori’s son), but is released (on 14th June 1897 in Accra again).
1897, 14th Feb. negotiation between Henderson and Babatu in Kanjaga

1897, 14th March; Ltn Chanoine (French) together with Gurunsi troops under Hamaria beats Babatu in a battle at Kanjaga; in June 1897 Cpt. Hugot defeats Babatu at Ducie; Babatu flees via Yagaba to Yendi (belonging to the German colony of Togo) and dies there in 1907. 1897 may be marked as the end of the slave raids (since 1732) in Northern Ghana (Holden, p. 85, Habig, p. 56).

1897 The Northern Territories are entirely occupied by the British.

1898 Lieut. Henderson publishes an essay in the magazine "The Idler" about his expedition in the Ashanti hinterland. He adds a small map in which, probably for the first time, Bulsa villages appear: Bachonsa appears in the form of "Bechongsi"; "Barbatu's Camp" means "Kanjaga".

1899, 19th Nov.: Anglo-German Convention: Zaberma enter into the British army or return to Zabermaland (Niger)

1899-1908 "caravan tax" paid by merchants; most important source of income in the NT; abolished after pressure of the Gold Coast dealers; others source: caravan tax 1902-1908

1900 Gold Coast Regiment founded; many Bulsa recruited

1900 or 1901 death of Sandemnaab Anaankum, shortly after he has been confirmed by the British (1900); he is succeeded by Ayieta (until 1905)

1900-1901 Maintenance Tax collected by chiefs in NT

appr. between 1900 and 1920: Kantussi (Yarisa) settle in Sandema, Siniensi and Fumbisi; Colonial report of 1905 about Sandema: "There are no Mahommedans residing in the town".

1901, 26 Sept. Northern Territories declared a Protectorate controlled by the Governor of the Gold Coast (Accra); before, under a Commissioner and Commander-in-chief, they were controlled directly by the Colonial Office (London)

1901: Northcott's ban: import and sale of strong spirits is prohibited in the NT (prohibition of 1898 enters into force); Pito production should be encouraged.

1902: Administration Ordinance for NT: chiefs retain power and jurisdiction
1902, 11th -24th March: Punitive expedition of the British against the Bulsa (Tiansi) by Lieutenant-Colonel A. Morris; from Navrongo via Paga, Chana to Sandema (21st and 22nd March). All residents of Sandema disappear in the bush. The British destroy the "King's house" and move on to the "King" of Chuchuliga who welcomes the British.

1902: Cpt Fleury tours Bulsaland and met the chiefs at Sandema, Chuchuliga, Wiaga, Kadema and Siniensi.

1902-1932 "direct rule" in Ghana

1904: Chief's Ordinance: Governor must confirm the election of a chief; even before he had the right of dismissal

1905, 26 May (Tamale regional archives, register 6: Navrongo) A.M. Henry (DC): "The last Chief of Kunkwa was Abili, who died several years ago. It is reported that he died of wounds received whilst fighting with Babatur [sic] and his raiders. The population of Kunkwa consist of a large proportion of Mamprusis ... The town is under the chief of Passinkwia. The town is on the main caravan route from Moshi Country to Salaga and Kintampo. The Chief Fetish man is Atombi. The fetish is called 'Wallsi'. The fetish place is some rocks to the North side of the town. The following are Sections and Headmen.
Yalbilinsa (Chief’s section) Headman Adubina; Kunsesa Atubili; Twisiensa Tindana; Gandema Atumbi

1905, 25th Oct.: (Bening, p. 18) British headquarters are moved to Navrongo and the "administrative unit is bounded by the Sissili, White and Red Volta" (i.e. Bulsa area is included)

1905, 20th December: Ltn P.T. Partridge in Sandema

1905, Nov.: Ayieta is installed officially as chief by Major Irvine; 7-day ceremony; Ayieta dies 18th May,1912 (Francis Afoko, 6 +7)

1905, 20th Dec. (Sandema Archive, p. 220:) Report by P.T. Partridge: IETA [Ayieta] was nominated chief by Irvine, recognized by the people in November; "ceremony: ... being locked up in a dark room with[out] being allowed to come out for seven days ... There are no towns under the Chief of Sandema except Wia [Wiaga] and Saniesse [Siniensi]. No discharged soldiers live in this town."

1906-27 Adult men are recruited for forced labor in mines by the chiefs, for road constructions until 1934

1906, 24th May (Sandema Archive) Capt. AM. Henry, D.C., in Sandema; Correction [to 20th Dec.): Chief of Sania [Sandema] is not paramount over the towns of Wiaga and Siniensi; estimated labor ... expected: 100 (corrected: 300-400); in Sandema [there are] no soldiers ... and permanent traders; chief manufactures [of Sandema:]: Iron and potmaking; chief fetish place is a clump of trees close to the Chief's compound. There are no Mahommedans residing in the Town. No big trade routes pass through the town; sections [now in a new spelling]: Awusuyeri, Goluk, Fiisa, Nyanza, Balansa, Suerinsa, Kandem, Abilyeri, Bilinsa, Kalibisa, Achiokyeri

1906 beginning of labor migration from the NT

1907: military administration of the NT (2nd Battalion) abandoned; instead: constabulary on civilian base; Bulsa area in the Navrongo District (along with Gambaga District) belongs to the northeast province with Gambaga as its capital

1907, 14th April (Sandema Archive 221) Captain O'Kinealy in Sandema; blames Chief Ayieta ("seemed unwilling"); the big Fetish Man Attanta lives at Fisi [Fiisa]

1907 Babatu dies in Yendi (German) by a poisonous spider bite, his grave is expanded later to a Memorial

1907 Conflict between Ayieta and Amelizi from Wiaga-Chiok because of cattle; Amelizi’s son Adem allegedly stole 69 cows from Ayieta’s Kraal in Suarinsa; no verdict at the Court of Navrongo (Francis Afoko p. 6)

1908, 24th Oct. (Sandema Archive, p. 221) meeting in Navrongo; S.D. Nash, DC, gives copper coins to the Sandemnaab and explains their value

1909 to 17th Sept. 1947 Chief Azenaab of Wiaga

1909, 10th May: Berkeley, DC, visits Sandema: no complaints

1909, 19th June: A.W. Atkinson, M.O., punishes the chief (of Sandema or Siniensi?) to pay 7 cows because of disobedience

appr.1910 Capt. Armitage puts Chuchuliga under Navrongo; in those days Nayagania belonged to Chana (Francis Afoko, p.12)


1911, May: Capt. Whealer, ag. P.C., visits Sandema


1911, September 19th (Regional Archive Tamale, Register 6: Navrongo), Kunkwa: "...fines imposed for not clearing roads. Kunkwa follows Passankwa [Kpesingkpe?] - Nalerigu. Chief Aparanga very old and [not?] likely to live many days. The fetish man is Adju and he receives a fowl after a good harvest from all landowners.


1911, Sept 23rd: Diary of J.O. Kinealy of October 2nd: The Bulsa must have a head-chief! planned is the Sandemnaab Ayieta Ananguna or Kanjaga-chief; Wiaga, Siniensi and Kadema vote for Sandema; Fumbisi for Kanjaga; Doninga, Uasi and Bachonsi neutral; elected is the Sandema-chief Ayieta (F.Af. 6); election probably on 23.9.1911 (Iliasu, Kop. 1018, p. 7f)


1911, October 2 (F. Af. 6) Capt. Kinealy prepares the Bulsa chiefs for the election of a "Head Chief" on a round trip.


1911, Oct., Day? Election or nomination of Ayieta as Paramount Chief


1911, 15 October: C.H. Armitage, acting chief commissioner of the NT, agrees to Ayieta's election; confirmed on 1.5.1912


1911, October 25: Mr. Nash explains the chiefs copper money in Navrongo; Ayieta receives coins: 3d, 1d, 1/2 d, 1/4 d (F.Af.7)


1912 Plan to process and export shea butter and kernels in the Northern Territories is later abandoned.


1912-1929 Atibiro (Atigiro?) chief of Kadema


1912, 15 April Armitage confirms [once again?] the election of Sandemnaab as Paramount Chief (see 23.9.1911)


1912 Sandemnaab claims sovereignty over Kategra, Kunkwa, Cheeb [?], Bulbia and Kassidema (the last two now extinct), which were under the Wulugu-nab (Apt. 37f.)


1912, May 12 The chief of Kpesingkpe holds a meeting in Kpesinkpe; the chiefs of Fumbisi, Kanjaga and Katigra also appear; Kpesingkpe supports the separation [of Fumbisi, Kategra and Kanjaga] from Sandema; after a British investigation a fine is imposed on Kpesingkpe on June 4, 1912


1912, May: meeting in Nalerigu with deputies of Sandema, Doninga, Fumbisi, Siniensi, Wiaga (gap in the copy); Nayiri gives everyone "a red fez cap... as a symbol of chieftaincy"; but the deputies present were the losers of the traditional chieftain elections.


1912, 18th May: Ayieta's death; the death is reported to the Chief Commissioner of the NT by Nash on 24.5.1912; Ayiparo and Afoko want to become successors (F.Af.10)


1912, 15th June (Regional Archive Tamale, Register 6: Navrongo): Nalansa or Katigri: "...Kunkwa and (Bedema) Godemblisi follow Kunkwa. The whole country between these two places is a lake in the rainy season".


1912, 27 June (Sa-Arch. 221f.) Meeting in Sandema after the death of Ayieta under Nash; all section chairmen present; Afoko and Ayieparo confirmed as new candidates by Nash, Ayieparo finds no sympathy with the British; he is allegedly not related to the old chief and has elephantiasis; Nash: I am in favour of Affoka [Afoko] being elected. Head fetish man is Allafeesa in Feesa [Fiisa] Section. Attanta is dead.


1912, December 11 (Sa-Arch 222, F.Af. 10): Afoko is elected chief in Sandema by the 16 Sandema headmen in the presence of Whealer: 12 for Afoko, 4 for Ayi(e)paro; Ayiparo protests, Afoko dies 20.3.1927


1912, December 26: Whealer in Sandema: Ayiparo continues to make difficulties


1912, December 29 (Sa-Arch. 222): Meeting in Navrongo: Ayiparo claims he is the rightful chief; Armitage rebukes him


1912-1934 Bulsa Native Authority Area under Mamprusi Naa


1913, January (Sa-Arch. 223; F.Af. 11): the new road (runway) from Sandema to Kanjaga via Wiaga and Gbedema is completed with side ditches; it had been started immediately after Afoko's accession to power; Ayiparo boycotted the construction; supervisor: Cpt. Trawaley


1913, February: Nayiri (Nalerigu King) is received enthusiastically by Kanjaga chiefs during his round trip


1913, 25 March (Sa-Arch. 223): Ayiparo arrested by DCE O. Warden for boycotting road construction; 3 months imprisonment as political prisoner (F.Af.12)


1913 Seven Bulsa attend Navrongo Boarding School


1914 Malam Abu writes historical report about Babatu (translation by Pilaszewicz 1992)


1914, January 27: Berkeley, Ag. PC, Navrongo, in "Diaries", p. 311: Chief of Sandema interviewed about the 25 recruits wanted for the constabulary. He is told to produce two from each of his ten towns.


1914, April 13: Ag. PC. Berkeley visits Sandema; order to repair the Resthouse; 13.2.1916: well repaired



1914, May 14: Whealer (?) in Sandema: 4 headmen punished because they have not provided carriers


1914, July 7: Whealer (?) in Sandema: talks about wax trade with Kumasi


1914, July 16th: Capt. Whealer, Ag. PC, in his diary, p.313: Dr. Beal left the station of Chuchuliga. From there... throughout Kanjarga country to investigate the anthrax...


1915, 13th April: Breckenridge in Sandema; he warns people because they do not want to accept the British currency; new chief elected for Fumbisi; guns must be licensed


1915, 23. April (Regional Archive Tamale, Register 6: Navrongo): Kunkwa: ...chief says... that he does not wish to follow Sandema. I can find no record of his being told to do so and a note of September, 1911 says he follows Passinkwere, and I do not see why this should be upset. Orders in future will be sent through the Chief of Navaro.

Chief of (Katila) Katigri, a small place under Kunkwa and who was made by Kunkwa, complains that his people have never followed him since his appointment...


1916 Amariya (Hamaria, Amaria), who resided in Leo as "King", is deposed; British had proved his claim to Grunshi unfounded through material


1916, April 14, Castellain, DC, Diary p. 316: Left Sandema for Chuchuliga. The old chief... came out to meet me (15th April again in Navrongo)


1916, Nov. (Sa-Arch.) Chief Afoko receives the "King's Medal for African Chiefs", 1917 another order [of the medal] (F.Af.12); 1927 he was intended for a 4th order (F.Af.12), but dies before that


1916, Dec 11 (Sa-Arch 223): L. Castellain in Sandema; 2 ex-soldiers from Wiaga and Kadema warned; small medallion and fabric for a "gown" on Afoko;


1917, 23 (?). Jan. (Sa-Arch. 223): Castellain in Sandema: Civil Trials


1917, March 15 (Sa-Arch. 223): Castellain in Sandema: 7 recruits; Diaries p. 362: Government demands of all chiefs a quota of recruits; method is close to "compulsory conscription"; leads to riots


1917, April 1: Capt. Nash: Diary, p. 317: Arrived Kanjarga 10.30 am (coming from Zoko)... only chief's section present, the people of the other two sections were told to salute me at Navarro in proper numbers; ...fear of being seized as recruits


1917, May 19 (Sa-Arch. 223): Breckenridge, Nash, Dale and Johnstone in Sandema: Recruits! The 38 sections promise 2 recruits each


1917, 25 July (Sa-Arch. 223) Afoko receives medallion of medium size from Chief Comm. NT in Navrongo; he returns the smaller one.


1917, 27th December (Regional Archive Tamale, Register 6: Navrongo): Kunkwa: "CNEP and DC visited here and found the Rest House and compound in a very bad condition. The Chief complains that his people will not follow him. The Chief of Sandema followed us here and is anxious that Kunkwa should be put under him. The majority of the people speak Kanjarga, but say that they are Mamprusis. The CNEP says. before taking any steps into the matter he will consult with the chief of Passankwere [Kpesingkpe], who appoints the Chiefs of Kunkwa. Sgd. L.C. [L. Castellain?] (D.C.)


1917, 21st December (Sa-Arch. 223): meeting with the D.C. in Sandema; all chief are present


1917, 30th December (Sa-Arch. 224); L. Castellain in Sandema: Sandema should not give orders to Kunkwa.


1917, 30 December (Regional Archive Tamale, Register 6: Navrongo): B. Moutry Read (CNEP): A letter from the CNEP in Passankwere[Kpesingkpe] in which he declares that "before our occupation of the country and before the raids of Babatu, the Chief of Passankwere [Kpesingkpe], with the authority of the Na of Mamprusi, was authorized to appoint chiefs in the following villages: Kunkwa, Iuwase [Uwasi], Fambisi [Fumbisi], Kanjarga, Kadema, Seniessa [Siniensi], Wiaga, Sandema, Doninga and other villages in the country of Mamprusi. When a Wurume was chief of Passankwere, he appointed one of his sons chief of Kunkwa, whose sons became chiefs of Kanjarga, Wiaga, Sandema and Seniessa [F.K.: allusion to Atuga?]. That was before Babat's raids. These men were of course Samprusis and were the ancestors of today's chieftains of those villages that today call themselves Kanjargas. Some of these people have now influenced the Kanjarga markings and the language of their residence in the country and mixed with Kanjargas, but the current Chief of Sandema (Afawko) himself is an example of Mamprusian markings and shows his Mamprusian origin.

The chiefs of the above mentioned... villages until the coming of Babatu were not only appointed by the chief of Passankwere [Kpesingkpe], but approached by the chief of Kunkwa for confirmation in their appointments as chieftains; if this statement is correct, the appointment of Sandema now via Kunkwa would be an upheaval of all indigenous traditions and customs.


1917 Locust Swarms in the Northern Territories


1918 A.W. Cardinall visits Vare (Bulsa village, today extinct)


1919, December 12: Cardinall, Diary, p. 319: After Kanjarga, yesterday's cow case..... asked to kill lions..... they have not burned the grass... because of the general laziness


1920, March 4 (Tamale Regional Archive, register 6: Navrongo): C.H. Armitage (CCNT), Gambaga: judgement:

(1) The claims of Kayare, chief of Passankwire and Petadina, chief of Aba, to the supremacy of certain villages located on the land west of the right bank of the white Volta River are unfounded.

(2) the border between the land of Passankwaire [Kpesingkpe] and that of the Chief of Sandema is the white Volta River, with equal rights for the inhabitants of both districts.

The title "Chief of Aba" is no longer held by a Passankwaire [Kpesingkpe] chief.

The impertinence of Kayare in deceiving the Chief Commissioner, and I may add his supreme chief, who visited Passankwaire [Kpesingkpe] for the first time and was in no way to blame in this matter, cannot be overlooked, and I have decided to destroy him, but referred the matter to ... (?) and his subordinates to learn their opinion about Kayare's behavior etc etc etc. etc.


1920, 9th September (Sa-Arch. 224): Freeman, D.C., in Sandema, labour recruitment and census; asked when a new head of Bachonsa will be elected.


1920 (around) Road from Sandema via Wiaga to Fumbisi and Kanjarga built (renewed?), s. 1913


1922 DC for North Mamprussi speaks to Bulsa-chiefs: he needs workers for railway construction, otherwise there will be coercion; Sandemnaab supports him (cf. Thomas, Forced Labour)


1923 Chuchuliga should be part of Bulsa, Nayagania Kasen-Nankani; Afoko and Chief Awe of Navrongo agree; 1927 the Chief Commissioner NT confirms the recommendation of 1923 (F.Af.13)


1923, According to people from Chuchuliga, which now belongs to Bulsa, the road from Chuchuliga to Sandema must be improved (surface + beat), (F.Af.13)


1924: First road constructed from Navrongo to Sandema (T. Dietz 2009)


1924, June 9 (Sa-Arch. 225) Visit of a British officer in Sandema for 2 days: complaint about Doninga chief.


1924, June 24 (Sa-Arch. 224) Nainfais (?) in Sandema: 4 lb. penalty, because cow vaccinations were not carried out; Resthouse in good condition, but "white ants" destroy. Should one seek a new location?


1926,  Opening of the first Catholic Church  (T. Dietz 2009)


1926 (Sa-Arch. 225) Results of the 1921 Census: 17 sections of Sandema have together 906 compounds with 10911 inhabitants; largest section: Balansa with 2156 inhabitants, then Bilinsa (1125 inhabitants)


1926, 10 Jan.: Asangalisa Alang becomes Chief of Chuchuliga, installed by Afoko


1926, 30 March: British officer in Sandema: Praise for Afoko


1926, 9 Nov. (Regional Archive Tamale, Register 6: Navrongo): Chief (of Sandema) complains that 9 more compounds have moved over to South Mamprusi. Sipriani says that this was reported about April last. Chiefs says others are preparing to go - reason - too much work in Navaro, which is nonsense. Given a talking to and orders reiterated that people must not move from one district to another without first obtaining permission. Took list of names of the migrants for reference.


1926 (other source: 1927) The White Fathers establish a mission station in Wiaga (Barker, p. 40), (the 75 years' anniversary is celebrated on May 5, 2002.


1926 Cattle tax for cattle owners in the Northern Territories.


1927 Native Administration Ordinance: Rights of the State Council increased; position of Paramount Chief, Divisional Chief and Headman established.


1927 Recommendation of 1923 that Chuchuliga should be part of Bulsa, Nayagania part of Kasena-Nakani enters into force (F.Af.13)


1927, February: Afoko goes to Chuchuliga and enthroned (enskins) Asangaksa (F.Af.13)

According to Sandema administration Asangaksa ruled from 10.1.1926


1927, Febr. The White Fathers Dagenais and Champagne as well as Brother Albert found the Catholic mission station Wiaga (3rd Catholic station in Northern Ghana after Navrongo and Bolgatanga). Mission school: see 1930


1931, First acivities of the Presby church in the area (Chuchuliga),  (T. Dietz 2009)



1932 (1920)-2011 to be added soon


2012, February: An epidemic of CSM (cerebral spinal meningitis) led to 14 death cases in the UER, 4 in Buluk.


2012, 19th April - 11th May: Franz Kröger and Yaw Akumasi Williams worked at the National Archives of Ghana in search of data on Bulsa history.


2012, June - September: A group of students of Calgary University, Canada, and their supervisor, Dr Rowland Apeentiik worked and researched in the Bulsa area.


2012, June: Mr. Joseph Akanjolenur Whittal (Sandema-Abilyeri), a lawyer by profession, was appointed Deputy Commissioner in charge of Operations at the Commission on Human Rights and Administrative Justice.


2012, 29th June: The Bulsa District was divided into Bulsa North and Bulsa South District (capitals: Sandema and Fumbisi respectively).


2012, 17th July: Election of a new Sandemnaab and Bulsa Paramount Chief in Sandema in the sports stadium of the town. Azagsuk Azantilow received most votes and became the successor of late Azantilow Ayieta who had died in 2006.


2012, 7th December: Prof. em. Rüdiger Schott, the anthropologist, specialized in Bulsa oral literature, religion and law, died in Bonn (Germany). See obituary in Buluk 7, p. 43.


2012, 7th December: Parliamentary and presidential elections took place in Ghana. James Agalga (NDC) was elected MP for the Bulsa North Constituency, Alhassan Azong (PNC) for the Bulsa South Constituency.


2013, March: Mr. Daniel Awenyue Syme, who served as Bulsa District Chief Executive from 1992-2000, was appointed Deputy Upper East Regional Minister.


2013, June: Several meetings of the Bulsa Traditional Council took place to discuss the chieftaincy crisis after the election of July, 2012.


2013, July: Anthrax outbreak in Bulsa North.


2013, 16th September (GHP): After his first nominee had been rejected by the assembly, President Mahama nominated Mad. Afiuc Elizabeth Jane as the new District Chief Executive (DCE) for Bulsa South.


2013, 22nd September: Musah Lansa (from Doninga) has been nominated for the 'radio personality of the year for the Northern Sector'.


2013, 12th December: Chief Azagsuk Azantilow II was confirmed the new Sandemnaab and Paramount Chief of the Bulsa at Sandema.


2014, 3rd January: Miss Sabiana Asianab (from Wiaga) was elected Miss Buluk


2014, 4th January: Bulsa Paramount Chief and Sandemnaab Azagsuk Azantilow II issued a ban on the sale of liquor in Bulsa compounds.


2014, 12th April: Paul Afoko, son of Francis Asianab Afoko, was elected National Chairman of the NPP at a congress held in Tamale.


2014, 20th April: Rev. Pastor James Agalic passed away after a long illness. He had been a pastor of the Presbyterian Church, an anthropologist and DCE of the Bulsa District (2001-05).


2014, 15th June: Mr Abu Gariba, the former headmaster of Sandema Boarding School expired in Tamale at the age of 85 years.


2014, 28th June: A gang of well armed robbers stormed Fumbisi market in the afternoon. They made away with the daily proceeds of "Good Family Enterprise". Nobody was injured.


2014, 29th July: The compound owner (yeri-nyam) of Gbedembilisi elected Mr Ignatius Atirekpere the new chief of Gbedembilisi. After his election (63 of 75 votes) his full name and title is: Chief Amalugsi Atirekpere III:


2014, 2nd September: Dr. Prosper Akanbong, has been confirmed the substantive Chief Executive Officer of Tamale Hospital.


2014, 5th September: A documentary film about the Bulsa Fiok Festival of December 2012 was transmitted on Ghana TV (Gtv).


2014, end of September: Deadline for DCEs and District Assemblies to name the streets of their settlements (see Buluk 9, pp. 30ff).


2014, September: Clean-up campaign in the two Bulsa Districts


2015, 1st January: Miss Akumasi Augustina Awonle, a nursing student from Sandema, was elected Miss Buluk at the Conifah Guest House. .


2015, 26th February: Linus Angabe founded the "Bulsa Kaniak" (later named "Buluk Kaniak") Facebook group with John B. Agandin and Fidelis Landy as administrators.


2015, 9th June: The NDC candidates for the general election in 2016 were elected for the Bulsa North constituency. In the primary at Sandema 3632 votes were cast on the incumbent MP Mr. James Agalga and 930 votes on Mr Timothy Ataboadey. In the Bulsa South constituency Dr. Clement Apaak won the election over Dr. Chrys Anab Anyuisa as his contestant.


2015, 13th June: Mr Kofi Alonsi won the NPP primary in the Bulsa North Constituency over Mr Listowell Bukarson as his contestant. The winner of the Bulsa South Constituency was Mr. Daniel Kwame Gariba with Mr. Daniel Kojo Akachobili as his contestant.


2015, 21st July: 318 out of 620 litter bins were distributed in the Bulsa North District.


2015, 25th July: Bulsa South DCE handed over some complete projects to beneficiary communities: a community library at Kanjaga, a kindergarten in Jiningsa-Yipaala and a 3-unit JHS classroom block for Gbedema-Jagsa-Guuta.


2015, 1st August: The Top Gong Fitness and Youth Boxing Club, founded by Ghanatta Ayaric, started work at the durbar grounds.


2015, 4th August: Mr Francis Asianab Afoko, the head of the Ayieta Royal family, died in Tamale and was buried in Sandema. He had been a politician, an adviser of President Kufuor, a businessman and a hotel owner. He wrote an unpublished manuscript on the history of the royal house in Sandema (The Ayietas).


2015, August: Tsunami storms and floods in large parts of the Bulsa area.


2015, 18th December: Installation of Queen Mothers in Buluk during the Feok Festival. Her royal ladyship Poknab Atebalie Azantilow was introduced as the first queen mother in Sandema.


2016, 2nd January: Miss Georgina Ajabuin was elected Miss Buluk 2016 at the Good Family Lodge.


2016, 1st February: Christ-the-King Catholic Church in Sandema was inaugurated as a parish.


2016, 17th February: Mr Anmanya Abiako was elected as the new chief of Uwasi. Mr Abiako, an Accra based mechanic, was 52 years old and is a son of the late chief of Uwasi.


2016, 23rd February: Three vehicles loaded with rosewood impounded at Fumbisi Police Station. The wood was illegally felled in some communities in the Bulsa South District.


2016, 10th March: Opening of a permanent Bulsa exhibition in Werl (Germany). It contains Franz Kröger's collection of Bulsa material objects.


2016, 20th March: Petition of a group of Bulsa to the President of the Republic of Ghana concerning the illegal logging of rosewood trees in the Bulsa South District.


2016, 27th March: At Chuchuliga the third edition of the Achula Home Coming Celebration took place. This is an initiative to bring all sons, daughter and friends of the village together.


2016, 28th May - 6 June: Final Funeral Rites of Nab Dr Ayieta Azantilow, the late Paramount Chief.


2016, 21st July: Parts of Sandema township submerged after a heavy downpour of rain.


2016, 20th August: Two Bulsa together with colleagues from other parts of the UER were ordained catholic priests at the Christ the King Parish in Sandema.


2016, 16th September: The Bulsa Traditional Council outdoored eleven Queen Mothers to help steer the affairs of the council.


2016, 9th November: Francis Asangalisa was elected Chief of Chuchuliga in Sandema.


2016, 22nd November: President John Dramani Mahama paid a courtesy call on the paramount chief of Buluk.


2016, 22nd November: The newly constructed Kanjaga Community Day Senior High School was commissioned.


2016, 7th December: Parliamentary and Presidential Elections. James Agalga (NDC) was elected MP for the Bulsa North District (61.19%), Dr. Clement Apaak for the Bulsa South District (51,31%). The presidential candidate John Dramani Mahama scored 15,944 vote counts (68.48%) in Bulsa North, 9,802 vote counts (69,11%) in Bulsa South.


2016, 20th December: President John D. Mahama confirmed Joseph Whittal (from Sandema) as the new Commissioner for the Commission on Human Right and Administrative Justice.


2017, 4th January: Mr Justice Joseph Bawa Akamba was honoured by the Judicial Service at a ceremony at the Supreme Court in Accra. Mr. Akamba had served as a justice of the apex court from November 2012 until his retirement (2016).


2017, 27th March: According to Ghanaweb the police at Sandema [market] exchanged gunfire with five (4?) armed robbers.


2017, April: President Nana Addo Dunkwa Akufo-Addo nominated Hon. David Amoabil Afoko District Chief Executives (DCE) of Bulsa North District, Hon. Gariba Daniel Kwame DCE of the Bulsa South District.


 2018, 11th January: (ghanaweb) Martin Amidu (a Bulsa from Wiaga) was appointed Special Prosecutor of the NPP Government of President Akufo Addo.


 2018 3rd March: Bulsa of Accra and its surroundings celebrate the Festival called "Bulsa Feok -Accra Chapter" (see also John Agandin's contribution in Buluk 11)





Sources consulted (incomplete)


Afoko, Francis Asianab

1970 The Ayietas. Private Notes by Francis Asianab Afoko.Unpublished typescript. 22 pp.


Barker, Peter

1986 People, Languages and Religion in Northern Ghana. Accra.


Bening, Raymond B.

2001  Administrative Boundaries of Northern Ghana, 1898-1951. In: Yakubu Saaka (ed.): Regionalism and Public Polica in Northern Ghana. Frankfurt am Main et al.: Peter Lang Verlag.


Beyer, Klaus

1998 Pferde, Schwerter und Macht. Köln.


Cardinall, A.W.,

1927 In Ashanti and Beyond, London.


Der, Benedict G.

1998 The Slave Trade in Northern Ghana. Accra.


Dietz, Ton (Report)

2009 Participatory, holistic evaluation of development initiatives in Sandema (Builsa District) Upper East Region Ghana. Amsterdam.


Holden, J.J.,

1965 The Zabarima Conquest of Northwest Ghana, Part I, Transactions of the Historical Society of Ghana, 8, 60-86.


Iliasu, A. A.

? The Establishment of British Administration in Mamprugu, 1898-1937, Transactions of the Hist. Soc. of Ghana, 16:1-28.


Lentz, Carola

1998 Die Konstruktion von Ethnizität: Eine politische Geschichte Nord-West Ghanas, 1870-1990. (Studien zur Kulturkunde 112), Köln. [The Construction of Ethnicity: political history of North-Western Ghana 1870-1990.]


Levtzion, Nehemia

1968 Muslims and Chiefs in West Africa. Oxford.


Morris, A.,

1902 (Report on the late expedition into the Tiansi country, Gambaga, April 26, 1902), Enclosure in a letter of Governor Major Nathan to Mr. Chamberlain (Accra, May 31, 1902), Public Record Office, London, Co 879, 78, 05939, no. 25352 (Enclosure: no. G/105/N.T./02).


Ozanne, P.C.,

1971 Ghana. In: Peter Shinnie (Ed.): The African Iron Age. Oxford 1971, p. 36-65.


Perrault, W.F. (Rev. Fr.)

1954 History of the Tribes of the Northern Territories of the Gold Coast. St John Bosco's Press. Navrongo (Ghana).


Pilaszewicz, Stanislaw

1992 The Zabarma Conquest of North-West Ghana and Upper Volta: A Hausa Narrative 'History of Samory and Babatu and Others' by Mallam Abu. Warszawa: Polish Scientific Publishers.


Tamakloe, Emmanuel Forster

1931 A Brief History of the Dagbamba People. Accra.


Tauxier, Louis

1912, Le Noir du Soudan. Pays mossi et gourounsi.


Thomas, Roger B.

1973 Forced Labour in British West Africa: The Cas of the Northern Territories of the Gold Coast 1908-1927. Journal of African History 14, S. 79-103.


Wilks, Ivor

1989 Wa and the Wala: Islam and policy in north-western Ghana. Cambridge (CUP).


Williamson, Thora

2000 Gold Coast Diaries. Chronicles of Political Officers in West Africa. London und New York.